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3D means three-dimensional, i.e. something that has width, height and depth (length). Our physical environment is three-dimensional and we move around in 3D every day.
Humans are able to perceive the spatial relationship between objects just by looking at them because we have 3D perception, also known as depth perception. As we look around, the retina in each eye forms a two-dimensional image of our surroundings and our brain processes these two images into a 3D visual experience.
However it's important to note that having vision in both eyes (stereoscopic or binocular vision) is not the only way to see in 3D. People who can only see with one eye (monocular vision) can still perceive the world in 3D, and may even be unaware that they are stereo blind. They are simply missing one of the tools to see in 3D, so they relying about it.
Here are some of the tools humans use for depth perception:Stereoscopic vision: Two eyes provide slightly separate images; closer objects appear more separated than distant ones.
Accommodation: As you focus on a close or distant object, the lenses in your eyes physically change shape, providing a clue as to how far away the object is.
Parallax: As your head moves from side to side, closer objects appear to move more than distant ones.
Size familiarity: If you know the approximate size of an object, you can tell approximately how far away it is based on how big it looks. Similarly, if you know that two objects are a similar size to each other but one appears larger than the other, you will assume the larger object is closer.
Aerial perspective: Because light is scattered randomly by air, distant objects appear to have less contrast than nearby objects. Distant objects also appear less colour-saturated and have a slight colour tinge similar to the background (usually blue).
What’s behind 3D video?
3D video adds stereoscopic vision, meaning that two separate images are shown simultaneously—one to each eye. This presents enormous technical problems which is why there is still no perfect system almost 100 years since the first 3D movie was made.
Common display methods include:
Anaglyphic processing (red/cyan glasses): The original 3D system, now largely out of favor.
Polarized light system (polarized filter glasses): The most common new system for cinemas.
Active shutter system (LCD shutter glasses): The most likely standard for the first generation of 3D.
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